Invention of the Internet
Posted on March 3, 2010 by Jamie Slaughter, with 32767 views
The Internet is something which many of us now take for granted, but the invention of the Internet, is still recent. The Internet is essentially a network connecting thousands of smaller networks into a single global network. The Internet model and the Transmission Control Protocols used to implement the idea were developed in 1973 by Vinton Cerf, an American computer scientist. His project was backed by the United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), directed by Robert Khan, an American engineer.
The Internet initially was used to connect University networks and research labs within the United States. The World Wide Web, as we now know it, was developed in 1989 by Timothy Berners-Lee, an English scientist, for the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).
"The design of the Internet was done in 1973 and published in 1974. There ensued about 10 years of hard work, resulting in the roll out of Internet in 1983. Prior to that, a number of demonstrations were made of the technology - such as the first three-network interconnection demonstrated in November 1977 linking SATNET, PRNET and ARPANET in a path leading from Menlo Park, CA to University College London and back to USC/ISI in Marina del Rey, CA." . - Vinton Cerf
The Internet is better described as an interconnection of various computer networks which enable each connected machine to communicate directly. Smaller Internets exist, called Intranets, which are typically used within a single organisation.
The Internet grew to phenomenal levels over a short period of time. In 1996, more than 25 million computers had been connected to the Internet across 180 different countries.
The Internet makes use of gateways to connect separate networks to a single network. Gateway interconnections are established across telephone lines, optical fibres and radio links. New networks can be added by welcoming new gateways into the network. Data sent from one machine is tagged, using a unique address which identifies that particular machine, and to ensure the information is sent to the correct destination.
Addressing is crucial to the success of the Internet and commonly uses the dotted decimal approach, for example 126.96.36.199. This address is often associated with a web address, with the numeric address and the URL paired up in an addressing table, to eradicate the need to remember number strings. Once data is sent from one machine, the data travels from gateway to gateway until it reaches the network belonging to the destination machine. The Internet has no central repository, and therefore is unique in its methodology.
The Internet Protocol is a key element to a successful Internet. The Internet Protocol determines how a gateway receives a request and what to do with that request once received. The Transmission Control Protocol then verifies that the information has been sent and received successfully, allowing the data to be re-sent if an error occurs during transmission.
The Internet has changed our world bringing a wealth of information to our fingertips. The sharing of information has accelerated with the introduction of the Internet, with new, fresh content accessible second after second. More applications are being introduced to the Internet, and with the rising popularity of Internet enabled phones, the Internet will only continue to grow at a tremendous rate opening up thousands more opportunities to all of us. The invention of the Internet is indeed, one of the most recent revolutionary inventions which have been a major success and welcome addition to our world.